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De Zhuangzi in andere teksten

werk in ontwikkeling

De Zhuangzi (tekst) wordt in diverse oude teksten expliciet genoemd.
Te vermelden zijn o.a. de Lüshi Cinqiu, Huainanzi, Shizi, Han shi wai zhuan, Fayan etc.
Daarnaast zijn er vele parallelle passages tussen de verschillende pre Qin teksten, waaronder de Zhuangzi.
Zie voor de persoon Zhuangzi de notitie Zhuang Zhou

A. Citaten uit de brontekst

Zhuangzi in de Xunzi - verwijzingen

Parallelle passages / verwijzingen

Xunzi hst 1 An Exhortation to Learning:
In the south there is a bird called the meng jiu.* It makes its nest from feathers, weaving it together with hair, and attaches it to the slender branch of a reed. When the wind comes along, the branch snaps, the eggs break, and its young perish. This happens not because the nest itself is flawed, but rather because of what it is attached to. (Hutton Xunzi hst 1 pag 2) 1.39-1.44

* These remarks about the meng jiu 蒙鳩 may be parodying chap. 1 of the Zhuangzi, especially its story of the xue jiu 學鳩 bird.

Xunzi Hst 2 脩身篇 Youshen - Cultivating Oneself:
If one’s intentions are cultivated, then one will disregard wealth and nobility. If one’s concern for the Way and yi is great, then one will take kings and dukes lightly. It is simply that one examines oneself on the inside, and thus external goods carry little weight. A saying goes, “The gentleman makes things his servants. The petty man is servant to things.” This expresses my meaning. If an action tires your body but puts your heart at ease, do it. If it involves little profit but much yi, do it. Being successful in the service of a lord who creates chaos is not as good as simply being compliant in the service of an impoverished lord. (Hutton p12) 2.95-2.104

Opmerking Hutton: Similar advice about not becoming subservient to things appears in the Zhuangzi, which encourages “treating things as [mere] things” (wu wu 物物) in chapters 11 and 20.

Xunzi hst 2 脩身篇 Youshen - Cultivating Oneself:
The horse Qi Ji could go a thousand li in a day, but with ten days of riding an old nag can also go that far. If you attempt to exhaust the inexhaustible or pursue the limitless, then you can break your bones and rupture your tendons trying, but to the end of your life you will not succeed.(Hutton p 13) 2.134-2.138

Opmerking Hutton: Compare the beginning of chap. 3 of the Zhuangzi. (hst 3-I)

Xunzi hst 5 非相篇 Feixiang - Against Physiognomy:
Among the ancients, Jie and Zhòu were tall, stout, and beautiful; they were the most outstanding in the world. In their physical (55) strength, they were energetic and powerful; each was a match for a hundred men. Nevertheless, they were put to death and their states perished. They became the greatest disgraces in the world, and discussions by subsequent generations about badness are sure to mention them.13 This was not due to a fault in their appearance, but was (60) rather because their understanding was deficient, and their judgments were base. (Hutton p32) 5.53-5.61

Opmerking Hutton: Xunzi’s claim that all the sages and worthies had deformities is remarkably reminiscent of the Zhuangzi, which frequently depicts people with physical defects as superior to others, but Xunzi goes beyond the Zhuangzi in then portraying the most evil tyrants as outwardly perfect. The Zhuangzi is probably mocking views like those of Mencius (see Mencius 7A21), and Xunzi may have the same intent here.

Hst 18 正論篇 Zhenglun - Correct Judgments:
A saying goes, “One who is shallow is not fit to take part in probing something deep. One who is stupid is not fit (255) to take part in planning something clever. A frog sunk in a well cannot take part in discussing the joys of the eastern sea.” This expresses my meaning. (Hutton p189) 18.53-18.57

Opmerking Hutton: The last of these sentences is more fully explained by a story in chap. 17 of the Zhuangzi. There, a sea tortoise describes the vastness of the sea to a frog who has never left the confines of his little well, and the frog is dumbfounded by the idea of such a great expanse of water.

Hst 21 解蔽篇 Jiebi - Undoing Fixation:
The human heart can be compared to a pan of water. If you set it straight and do not move it, the muddy and turbid parts will settle to the bottom, and the clear and bright parts will be on the top, and then one can see one’s whiskers and inspect the lines on one’s face. But if a slight breeze passes over it, the muddy and turbid parts will be stirred up from the bottom, and the clear and bright parts will be disturbed on top, and then one cannot get a correct view of even large contours. The heart is just like this. Thus, if one guides it with good order, nourishes it with clarity, and nothing can make it deviate, then it will be capable of determining right and wrong and deciding what is doubtful. If it is drawn aside by even a little thing, then on the outside one’s correctness will be altered, and on the inside one’s heart will deviate, and then will be incapable of discerning the multifarious patterns of things.(Hutton p230 ) 21.259-21.265

Opmerking Hutton: Compare Zhuangzi, chap. 5.

Hst 27 大略篇 Dalüe - The Grand Digest:
“If you do not know it, then ask it of Yao and Shun. If you lack it, then seek it from the Heavenly repository.” I say: the way of the former kings is just this “Yao and Shun,” and the broad contents of the Six Masterpieces are just this “Heavenly repository.” Hutton p305) 27.445-27.449

Opmerking Hutton: The phrase “Heavenly repository” is odd, especially for the Xunzi, and has puzzled commentators. It appears in a number of other early texts, where it has several different meanings. In this case, though, it seems best to take its sense as close to one that appears in the Zhuangzi (chap. 2), namely as describing a kind of limitless resource: “Though you pour into it, it does not become filled up. Though you draw from it, it does not become depleted.” (Perhaps the Xunzi is responding to the Zhuangzi here.)

In de appendix verklaart Hutton de belangrijkste termen.
Way (Dao 道): In the Xunzi, the Way is the highest normative standard, and constitutes the guide both for how individuals should live and for how the world as a whole should be managed. The notion of the Dao is sometimes mistakenly equated with the view found in “Daoist” texts such as the Daodejing and the Zhuangzi. In fact, the term was common property among all early Chinesethinkers, who all used it to designate the ideal way to live, while disagreeing about what was involved in following the Way. The Xunzi explicitly criticizes other major early Chinese thinkers’ understandings of the Way (see 17.247–262 and 21.101–22). It also explicitly rejects any attempt to identify the Way with the ways of Heaven and Earth (see 8.101–2). (Hutton p345)

Zhuangzi in de Shizi fragment 64

Shi Zi Fragments no 64
Yi Yi was a descendant of Yi Guizhu, and someone encouraged him to become an official. (He) replied: “I am thus comparable to an ox that would sooner submit to a yoke in order to plow in the fields rather than wear embroidery, enter a court, and become a sacrifice.” (Fischer 2012 p 140).

Zhuang Zi hst 32-XII:
Someone sent gifts to Zhuang Zi with an invitation to office. Zhuang Zi replied to the messenger in these words: “Have you ever seen a sacrificial ox? They deck him out in embroidery and trimmings, gorge him on grass and beanstalks. But when at last they lead him off into the great ancestral temple, then, although he might wish he could become a lonely calf once more, is it possible?” (Vertaling Watson 1968 p 360-361, reprint 2013 p 285)

Vertaling Schipper hst 32-XII:
Iemand wilde Zhuang Zi uitnodigen om een ambt te aanvaarden. Zhuang Zi zei tegen zijn afgezant: ‘Heb je wel eens goed gekeken naar een rund dat geofferd gaat worden? Hij wordt bedekt met bont geborduurde kleden en krijgt hooi en bonen te eten. Maar wanneer het moment gekomen is dat hij naar de voorvadertempel wordt geleid, dan zou hij in weerwil van dat alles toch wel weer een klein kalfje willen zijn! Maar is dat mogelijk?’

Zhuangzi in de Lüshi Chunqiu

- Boek 13 hst 3 paragraaf 4 (13/3.4) -
Titel hoofdstuk Qu you - Getting Rid of Prejudice (Knoblock p 288) - Freeing Oneself from Bias (Wang p129) ; citaat vergelijkbaar met fragment uit Zhuangzi hst 19-IV
- Boek 14 hst 8 paragraaf 2 (14/8.2)-
Titel hoofdstuk Bi Ji - Being Certain of oneself ; citaat vergelijkbaar met Zhuangzi hst 20-I.

Boek 13 hst 3.4
"There was an ugly person in Lu. While out his father happened to see Shang Duo. When he returned home, he commented to his neighbor, "Shang Duo does not equal my son". Now his son was the extreme of ugliness and Shang Duo was the extreme of handsomeness; yet he considered extreme handsomeness inferior to extreme ugliness because he was prejudiced by love. Only one who knows the ugliness of beauty and the the beauty of ugliness, therefore, is capable of understanding true beauty and ugliness.
Zhuangzi said: "Play for tiles and you soar; play for belt-hooks and you become combative; play for gold and you are flustered. Although you luck is the same in each of the games, the reason you become flustered must be the value you place on external things. Valuing external things makes one become clumsy within". The man of Lu can be called someone who valued external things. (Knoblock 2000 p 288)

The was an ugly man in the state of Lu. His father went out once day and saw Shang Do. Upon his return, he said to his neighbor, 'Shang Duo is not as handsome as my son". His son was extremely ugly and Shang Duo was extremely handsom. He thought an extremely handsome man not as handsome as an extremely ugly man because he loved his son. Therefore, before one can really understand what is beautiful can be considered and what is ugly, one must know that what is beautiful can be considered as ugly and what is ugly can be considered as beautiful. The book Zhuang Zi says, "A man who gambles with a pottery vessel is calm in mind; a man who gambles with the buckle of his waist belt becomes anxious; a man who gambles with gold become deeply worried. Although the gambling skills of the man is the same as before, he becomes deeply worried because he attaches too much importance to a thing that is not part of himself. A gambler who attaches too much importance to a thing that is not part of himself becomes clumsy in mind and cannot give full play to his skills." It can be said that the man of Lu was one who attached to much importance to a thing that was not part of himself. (Wang p129-130)

Zhuangzi Hoofdstuk 19 paragraaf 4 laatste alinea:
Ga je om dakpannen een wedstrijd in het boogschieten aan, dan schiet je het beste. Gaat het om gordelhaken, dan word je nerveus. En als het om goud gaat, dan raak je volslagen van de kaart. Je vaardigheid is hetzelfde, maar dat waarom het gaat beïnvloedt je van buiten. Als uiterlijke dingen invloed op je krijgen, dan word je van binnen onbeholpen.’ (vertaling Schipper 2007 p248)

Parallelle passages:
lushi (Knoblock) --> zhuangzi (Schipper)
2/2.2 - hst 28-I 1e alinea
2/2.3 - hst 28-III
2/2.4 - hst 28-V 1e alinea
2/5.2 - hst 31
10/3.1 - hst 29
11/4.2 - hst 29
13/3.4 - hst 19
14/8.1 - hst 26
14/8.2 - hst 20
14/8.4 - hst 19
18/3.2 fragment
18/3.4 - hst 21
19/1.2 - 1e alinea: hst 28-I laatste alinea; 2e alinea: hst 28-XIII
20/2.2 - hst 12
21/4.2 - hst 28-II
21/4.3 - hst 28-IV
22/5.3 -hst 1
24/5.5 fragment
25/3.5 - hst 23

Zhuangzi in de Huainanzi

De Zhuangzi (boek of persoon) wordt vier keer expliciet geciteerd of genoemd.
Dit is in de hoofdstukken 11.18, hst 12.42, hst 19.7 en hst 21.2
Daarnaast zijn er in vrijwel alle hoofdstukken parallelle passages.

Huainanzi 11.18
Huizi crossed the Mengzhu [Marsh] with a retinue of one hundred chariots.
Zhuangzi saw him and threw away his leftover fish. (Major 2010 p424)
Opmerking Major: Zhuangzi's gesture was one of disgust at the display of exces he had just witnessed.
Huainanzi 12.42 slot alinea
Therefore the Zhuangzi says:
"A few years are not as good as many years;
small knowledge is not as good as great knowledge
The morning mushroom knows nothing of dusk and dawn;
the cicada knows nothing of spring and fall
That is, even clarity cannot discern everything. (Major 2010, p 472)

Zhuangzi hst1-I 8e alinea p46
Little understanding cannot come up to great understanding; the shortlived cannot come up to the long-lived.
How do I know this so? The morning mushroom knows nothing of twilight and dawn; the summer cicada knows nothing of spring and autumn. They are the shortlived. (Watson reprint 2013 p2)

Vertaling Schipper
Kleine kennis is niet opgewassen tegen grote kennis, en een korte levensduur niet tegen een lange. Hoe weet men dat? eendaagse paddestoel weet niets van de nieuwe en de volle maan, noch weet de krekel van de vier jaargetijden, want ze hebben een korte levensduur. (Schipper 2007 p 46)

Huainanzi Hoofdstuk 19 脩務 Youwu - Cultivating Effort, paragraaf 7 3e alinea
When Hui Shi died Zhuangzi ceased to talk, perceiving that there was no one else with whom he could converse. (Major 2010 p784)

Zhuangzi Hst 24-VI
Sinds meester Hui Zi gestorven is heb ik ook geen dergelijke makker meer, en is er niemand met wie ik nog kan praten. (Schipper 2007, p320)

Hoofdstuk 21. 要略 Yaolüe - An Overview of the Essentials; paragraaf 2
“Responses of the Way”
picks out and draws together the relics of past affairs,
pursues and surveys the traces of bygone antiquity,
and investigates the reversals of bad and good fortune, benefit and harm.
It tests and verifies them according to the techniques of Lao and Zhuang,
thus matching them to the trajectories of gain and loss. (Major 2010, p854)

Zhuangzi in de Han shi wai zhuan

Hanshi waizhuan 10.21:
Whereupon he went ahead and offered a remonstrance:
"In my garden there is an elm tree. On top is a cicada. The cicada is just vibrating his wings and singing his sad song, intent on drinking the fresh dew, not knowing that the mantis behind him is twisting his neck, about to seize and eat him.
The mantis, intent on eating the cicada, does not know that behind him the sparrow is stretching his neck
about to peck and eat him.
The sparrow intent of eating the mantis, does not know that the boy beneath the elm tree with cross-bow and pellets is looking up about to shoot him.
The boy, intent on shooting the sparrow, does not know that in front of him is a deep pit and behind him a hole. These all are occupied with the advantage before them without regarding the [possible] injury behind.
It is not only animals and common people who behave like this; rulers also do the same thing. (Hightower 1952)

Vertaling Schaberg:
So he entered and remonstrated, saying, "In my garden there is an elm. In it there was a cicada, which was just stirring its wings and buzzing mournfully and was about to sip the clear dew. but did not know that there was a mantis behind it bending its neck and preparing to seize and eat it. The mantis, about to eat the cicada, did not know that there was a titmouse behind it stretching its neck and preparing to snap it up and eat it. The titmouse, about to eat the mantis, did not know that there was a boy grasping a pellet-bow below, creeping up and preparing to shoot it. The boy, about to shoot the titmouse, did not know that there was a deep trench in front of him and a pit behind. All these considered the gain in front of them without giving a thought to the harm behind them. It is not only insects and commoners who are like this. The people's ruler is also like this. (Schaberg 2005 in Kern, Martin 2005 Text and ritual in Early China, p 207)

Zhuangzi in de Fayan

Fayan 3.20
Someone asked me, “Suppose there was a person who leaned on Kongzi’s wall while strumming the sounds of Zheng and Wei or reciting the writings of Han Fei and Zhuangzi. Would such a man be brought into the house through the main door?” (Nylan 2013 p49)

Nylan: The sounds of Zheng and Wei are licentious, so liking them creates problems for the music lover. The writings of Han Fei and Zhuangzi, however alluring, are ultimately corrupt.

Fayan 4.25
As for Zhuang Zhou, Shen Buhai, and Han Fei, if they had not opposed and disparaged the sages, but instead had steeped themselves in their writings, how would the followers of Yan Hui and Min Ziqian* ever have bettered them?! (Nylan 2013 p67)
* De beste leerlingen van Kongzi (Confucius)

Fayan 4.26
Someone asked me whether to adopt anything from Zhuang Zhou.
“His injunction to lessen desires.”*
“And from Zou Yan?”
“Self-reliance and self-restraint. But Master Zhuang is less than adequate when it comes to the duties between rulers and subjects, and Master Zou seems to know nothing about the social world between heaven and earth. So in the case of these two masters, even ‘if they were near neighbors,’ I would not bother to pay them a visit. (Nylan 2013 p67)

* Nylan: While Yang Xiong occasionally disparages the Zhanguo masters, he is much more laudatory about some (e.g., Zhuangzi) than about other classical masters (e.g., Hanshi waizhuan 4/22; Hightower, p. 146).

Fayan 5.27
Someone asked me whether Zou Yan and Zhuangzi have ideas worth borrowing.
"One should borrow there virtuous points and reject those in error."
"But what do you deem 'virtuous' and 'in error'?"
"In speaking of heaven, earth and man, it's the constants and the Classics that embody the true character and virtue of things. Speech opposed to them is 'in error'. The noble man never lets erroneous speech out of this mouth." (Nylan 2013 p 83)

Fayan 8.28:
Zhuangzi and Yang Zhu exhibited a complete lack of control, and they upheld no models. (Nyland 2013 p 129)

| Chinees |

Chinese tekst

或問:人有倚孔子之牆。弦鄭, 衛之聲。誦韓, 莊之書。則引諸門



Huò wèn: Rén yǒu yǐ kǒngzǐ zhī qiáng. Xián zhèng, wèi zhī shēng. Sòng hán, zhuāng zhī shū. Zé yǐn zhū mén
hū. Yuē zài yí háo zé yǐn zhī. Yǐ mén qiáng zé huī zhī. Xī hū yī wèichéng ér zhuǎn wèi shang yě.

Zhuāng zhōu shēn hán bù guāi guǎ shèngrén ér jiàn zhū piān. Zé yán shì zhīzǐ mǐnshì zhī sūn. Qí rú tái.

Huò yuē zhuāng zhōu yǒu qǔ hū. Yuē shǎoyù. Zōuyǎn yǒu qǔ hū. Yuē zìchí. Zhì zhōu wǎng jūnchén zhī yì. Yǎn wúzhī yú tiāndì zhī xián. Suī lín bù dí yě.


Lüshi Cinqiu

De Lüshi Cinqiu heeft twee citaten uit de Zhuangzi:
- Boek 13 hst 3 Qu You paragraaf 3 - Getting Rid of Prejudice (Knoblock p 288) - Freeing Oneself from Bias (Wang p129); citaat vergelijkbaar met fragment uit Zhuangzi hst 19-IV
- Boek 14 hst 8 Bi Ji paragraaf 2 - Being Certain of oneself (Knoblock p331-332); citaat vergelijkbaar met Zhuangzi hst 20-I.
Naast deze expliciete citaten zijn er nog vele parallelle passages (zie hierboven).

Meer informatie en literatuur: Lüshi Cinqiu


De Xunzi geeft een korte typering van de persoon Zhuangzi.

Xunzi Hoofdstuk 21 Jiebi - Undoing Fixations, kritiseert diverse filosofen waaronder Zhuangzi:
"Zhuangzi was fixated on the Heavenly and did not understand the value of the human".

Hutton, de vertaler van de Xunzi, ziet verder de nodige verwijzingen naar de tekst Zhuangzi (zie hierboven).

Meer informatie en literatuur: Xunzi


De Zhuangzi (boek of persoon) wordt vier keer expliciet geciteerd of genoemd in de Huainanzi (zie hierboven). Daarnaast zijn er talloze parallelle passages. Charles le Blanc vermeld 269 vindplaatsen (Le Blanc, 1985 Huainantzu pag 83). Die zijn te vinden in vrijwel alle hoofdstukken en in het bijzonder in hoofdstuk 2. Dit hoofdstuk "draws heavily upon the Zhuangzi with fully a third of its content being borrowed from this single source " (Lau & Ames 1998, Yan Dao: tracing Dao to its Source, p9). In een voetnoot wordt aangeven dat dit hoofdstuk ook fragmenten uit de verloren gegane Zhuangzi kan bevatten.Ook ander hoofdtukken bevatten veel parallelle passages. 1.

Meer informatie en literatuur: Huainanzi


De Shiji geeft een korte biografie van Zhuangzi.
Shiji hst 63 - memoire 3 Laozi Han Fei liezhuan – biografieën van Laozi en Han Fei [Lao Tzu en Han Fei]. Deze biografie bevat korte schetsen van Laozi [Lao Tzu], Zhuangzi [Chuang Tzu], Shen Bu hai [Shen Pu-hai] en Han Fei. De biografie is ook integraal opgenomen in de vertaling van Kristofer Schipper.

Verder wordt Zhuangzi genoemd aan het slot van memoire 63: "Chuang Tzu abandoned morality and let loose his opinions, but his essence, too, lies mainly in spontaneity".

Shiji Hst 74 memoire 14 Mengzi Xun Qing liezhuan - biografieën van Mengzi en Xun Qing [Meng Tzu en Hsun] (Mencius en Xunzi) heeft in de slotalinea ook een korte opmerking over Zhuangzi: "Xunzi was consumptions of scholars arguing over minutiae, such as people like Zhuang Chou disordering convention with smooth talk."

Meer informatie en literatuur: Shiji


De Liezi bevat veel parallelle paragrafen met de Zhuangzi.
Dit betreft vooral hoofdstuk 2 黃帝 Huangdi - The Yellow Emperor / De Gele Keizer. De paragrafen die niet in de overgeleverde Zhuangzi voorkomen zouden wel eens afkomstig kunnen zijn uit de verloren gegane editie van de Zhuangzi in 52 hoofdstukken.
Zie ook de aparte notitie Het boek Liezi en de Zhuangzi. Hierin wordt een overzicht van de parallelle paragrafen gegeven.

Meer informatie en literatuur: Liezi

Fayan - Exemplary figures

Deze tekst is van Yang Xiong (53 v.Chr. - 18 n.Chr.)
Op vijf plaatsen wordt Zhuangzi genoemd. Zie hierboven onder A.

Meer informatie en literatuur: Fayan

Hanshi waizhuan

parallelle paragraaf
Hst 10.21 parallelle paragraaf met Zhuangzi hst 20-VIII - Zhuangzi op jacht die zelf de bejaagde wordt.(Schipper 2007 p266).
(Bron: Bumbacher 2016p 616-617 )

Meer informatie en literatuur: Hanshi waizhuan


Fragment 64 heeft een parallel met Zhuangzi hst 32-XII waarin Zhuangzi een ambt weigert.
De Shizi heeft een vergelijkbare tekst maar nu met een andere hoofdrolspeler.

Fischer wijst op meerdere overeenkomsten tussen tekstfragmenten uit de Shizi en de Zhuangzi.

Meer informatie en literatuur: Shizi

Han Feizi

Hoofdstuk 20-IX van de Zhuangzi (De herbergier in Song met zijn bijzitten) vinden we ook terug in de Han Feizi, boek 7 hst XXII Collected persuasions, The upper series.

Chu ci - Songs of the South

- Nine Songs, lied 8 'the earl of the yellow River' (He Bo) (Gopal 2017 p 17)
He Bo vinden we terug in hst 17 de herfstvloed van de Zhuangzi
- Tian Wen -Ask the Sky, vermeldt Peng zu (Gopal p 74)
- Yuan you -Wandering far away, vermeldt Ruo, de god van de zee (Gopal p 148)
Zie hst 17 de herfstvloed van de Zhuangzi
- YuFu - The Fisherman (Goal p 152)
“The Fisherman,” taking a subtly ironic stance, reads like the type of Daoist story one finds in works such as the Zhuangzi , where figures similar to Qu Yuan, such as Confucius, are satirized (Gopal p 152)
- Fu fu - The Owl Rhapsody
“The Owl Rhapsody” is a philosophical poem based in classical Daoism—that is, the Daoism of the Laozi and Zhuangzi , which advocates the calm acceptance of death based on the recognition of its inevitability in the larger process (or Dao) of the universe. (Gopal p 195)


Bijvoorbeeld hst 12. In een voetnoot geeft Major de volgende parallellen (Major 2010 p435):
Chap. 12 shares nine parallels or near parallels with the received Zhuangzi, two of which also appear in the Lüshi chunqiu. Compare the following anecdotes:
HNZ 12/105/3–18 and ZZ22/62/18– 22;
HNZ 12/106/28–12/107/4 and ZZ 22/60/31–22/61/2;
HNZ 12/109/12–19 and ZZ 28/81/23–28;
HNZ 12/109/21–25 and ZZ 28/84/7–11;
HNZ 12/110/1–8 and ZZ 13/37/10–13;
HNZ 12/114/26–29 and ZZ 10/24/27–10/25/3;
HNZ 12/115/12–17 and ZZ 6/19/17–20;
HNZ 12/116/18–19 and ZZ 1/1/19;
HNZ 12/117/1–4 and ZZ 2/7/17–19; and
HNZ 12/117/6–10 and ZZ 22/63/1–3.
21. Other tropes from the Zhuangzi developed in chap. 12 are “the usefulness of the useless” (12.34) and “valuing life” (12.15 and 12.16).


Hieronder kunt u een selectie maken van de verschillende publicatievormen en de taal. Ik beperk me tot vier taalgebieden (Nederlands, Engels, Frans en Duits). De meeste literatuur is overigens engelstalig. U kunt bij teksttype ook apart de vertalingen selecteren en U kunt desgewenst ook een specifieke auteur zoeken.

Boeken 1 tot 3 van de 3

Boltz, William G. (2005). The Composite Nature of Early Chinese Texts. In Martin Kern, Text and Ritual in Early China Hst 2 p50-78 *. University of Washington Press

Bumbacher, Stephan Peter (2016). Reconstructing the Zhuang zi: Preliminary Considerations. Asiatische Studien - Études Asiatiques, Vol 70 nr 3 p611-674 *

Fischer, Paul (2009). Intertextuality in Early Chinese Masters-Texts: Shared Narratives in Shi Zi. Asia Major, 22 (2). *

Boeken 1 tot 3 van de 3