維摩詰所說經 Weimojie suoshuo jing (Vimalakīrti Sūtra)
Engelse titel: The Teaching of Vimalakīrti
auteur / toegeschreven aan: Kumārajīva
Vimalakīrti Sūtra or Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra
The Kumarajiva translation of the Vimalakirti Sutra, with its elegant and neatly balanced phrases, has exercised an enormous influence in China and the other countries within the Chinese cultural sphere. Except for a rather murky passage at the end of chapter 4, it reads right along in beautifully concise classical Chinese, and it is for the most part free of the tedious repetitions that make some of the other Mahayana sutras a chore to read. In philosophical depth and brilliance of language it rivals the Chuang Tzu, the collected writings of the early Chinese Taoist philosopher Chuang Chou, and it is significant that both works enjoyed particular popularity among the literary-minded gen try of the Six Dynasties period. (..)
The Vimalakirti Sutra, one of the most famous and influential works of the Mahayana canon, is outstanding for the eloquent and orderly manner in which it expounds the basic tenets of Mahayana, the liveliness of its episodes, and its frequent touches of humor, these last a rarity in a religious work of this type. The Vimalakirti Sutra is also unusual in that its central figure is not a Buddha or Buddhas but a wealthy townsman of Shakyamuni's time, Vimalakirti, who in his religious under standing and practice epitomizes the ideal lay believer. For this reason, and because of the sutra's remarkable literary appeal, it has enjoyed particular popularity among lay Buddhists in China, Japan, and the other Asian countries where Mahayana doctrines prevail and has exercised a marked influence on their literature and art. Highly regarded by nearly all branches of
Mahayana Buddhism, it has held a place of particular impor tance in the Ch'an or Zen sect.
The earliest Chinese translation, now lost, was done in 188 c.E., so the sutra must predate that year, originating probably around 100 c.E. It was translated into Chinese six more times, the last translation done by Hsiian-tsang in the years 627-648 c .e .. By far the most pop ular and influential Chinese translation is the sixth, done by the Central Asian scholar-monk Kumarajiva in 406 c .e .(Watson 1997)
Three canonical Chinese versions are extant:
- an earlier version ascribed to Zhi Qian 支謙, entitled Weimojie jing 維摩詰經 T474
- one produced by Kumārajīva 鳩摩羅什 in 406 C.E. under the title Weimojie suoshuo jing 維摩詰所說經 T475;
- and one translated by Xuanzang in 650 玄奘 and is entitled Shuo Wogoucheng jing 說無垢稱經 T476.
Of these, the Kumārajīva version is the most famous. (wiki)
Onderstaande indeling is van Burton Watson 1997.
The Sanskrit and Tibetan versions divide the text into 12 chapters. The extant Chinese translations split chapters 3 and 12 in two, resulting in a total of 14. A handy synoptic table of the Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Chinese is published by Study Group on Buddhist Sanskrit Literature (2004, iv).(Rafel Felbur 2015 in Brill's Encyclopedia of Buddhism)
02. Expedient Means
03. The Disciples
04. The Bodhisattvas
05. Inquiring About the Illness
06. Beyond Comprehension
07. Regarding Living Beings
08. The Buddha Way
09. Entering the Gate of Nondualism
10. Fragrance Accumulated
11. Actions of the Bodhisattvas
12. Seeing Akshobhya Buddha
13. The Offering of the Law
Online informatie:Wikipedia: Vimalakirti sutra
Literatuur en vertalingen
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Baggio, Giacomo (2019). The Vimalakirtinirdesa Commentary [T1775] by Sengzhao et alii and the Chinese Conquest of Buddhism. *
Felbur, Rafel (2015). Vimalak?rtinirde?a.
in Brill's Encyclopedia of Buddhism Online
Karashima, Seishi (0). Features of the Underlying Language of Zhi Qians Chinese Translation of the Vimalak?rtinirde?a. *
Liu, Chen (2011). Flowers Bloom and Fall. *
McRae, John R. (2004). The Vimalakirti Sutra. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. *
Watson, Burton (1997). The Vimalakïrti Sütra: From, the Chinese Version by Kumärajiva. Columbia University Press. *
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